Copyright (c) 2008 Katie Kelley
The liver remains an extremely important part of the body and one of the largest organs in the body. It not only provides the body with food in the form of nutrients and vitamins, it breaks down and gets rid of toxins.
According to the American Liver Foundation (ALF), nearly 1 in every 10 Americans suffers from some form of liver disease. Thousands of Americans may be living with liver disease and be unaware of it, according to ALF. According to this organization, several types of liver conditions can be prevented if caught early. The founders of ALF also claim that through education, preventative screenings and vaccinations, thousands will be spared this potentially deadly disease.
What is Liver Disease?
The Mayo Clinic, which is a nationally recognized not-for-profit facility dedicated to diagnosing and treating complex illnesses, have found that several variations of liver disease affecting millions of Americans exist.
Of the various types of liver disease, the most common types of liver diseases are known as hepatitis, cirrhosis, alcohol-induced liver disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which "describes a range of conditions involving the liver that affects people who drink little or no alcohol," as defined by the Mayo Clinic.
Hepatitis is the most common form of liver disease. It occurs when the liver is inflamed and is linked to the spread of various viruses, but can also be developed because of poisons entering the body, an autoimmunity or hereditary condition.
Cirrhosis of the liver, also known as chronic liver disease, is a very serious and deadly form of liver disease. When fibrous tissues in the liver replace dead liver cells (often having died because of alcohol, chemical or hepatitis exposure, cirrhosis of the liver may occur. Scarring of the liver, especially severe scarring, is often caused by cirrhosis of the liver.
Alcohol-induced liver disease is caused through excessive consumption of alcohol primarily from individuals with disorders known as alcohol dependence or alcohol abuse. According to researchers at ALF, alcohol abuse is a leading cause of morbidity and morality around the world. In the United States, nearly 10 percent of men and 3 percent of women suffer from problems related to alcohol consumption, including liver disease.
NAFLD is also known as "fatty liver" disease and it can be caused by several issues such as obesity, diabetes, elevated cholesterol and elevated triglyceride levels. NAFLD can often be difficult to diagnose in beginning stages, but can rapidly worsen. The Mayo Clinic reports that cases of NAFLD can and have progressed to stages of severe cirrhosis or liver cancer.
There are an array of signs that are common among nearly all types of liver disease, according to researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Medical Center. These symptoms include:
* jaundice or yellowing of the skin
* loss of appetite, nausea
* unusual weight loss or weight gain
* darkened urine
* diarrhea, light-colored stools
* abdominal pain in upper right part of stomach
* vague feelings of illness
* varicose veins
* loss of sex drive
* low grade fever
* generalized itching
* muscle aches and pains
* susceptibility to bleeding
* enlarged and tender liver
* enlarged spleen
* edema or under-the-skin swelling
* aplastic anemia
* ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
* changes in mental state or level of consciousness
If an individual shows any of these signs or symptoms, it is necessary for them to seek medical assistance immediately.
Developing Liver Disease
There are several possible risk factors for developing liver disease, although it is difficult to determine some cases and many researchers believe it is unclear as to what the determines NAFLD. According to the UIC Medical Center, the following are several potential causes of liver disease:
* congenital birth defects or abnormalities at birth
* metabolic disorders or basic body processes with defects
* viral or bacterial infections
* nutritional deficiencies
* trauma or injury
* alcohol or poisoning by toxins can attribute to alcoholic-related
Additionally, the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (FDA) warned of another potential risk for individuals developing liver disease. The FDA detailed a strong link of liver failure with the Ketek (telithromycin) antibiotic manufactured by Saofi Aventis. Ketek is used to treat bacterial infections of the lung such as:
* mild- to moderate-pneumonia
* acute worsening of chronic bronchitis
* acute bacterial sinusitis
The increased warnings were based on findings by the FDA's reviews of the drug's postmarketing adverse events reports. The reports found that:
* Within the review, there were 12 cases of acute liver failure among Ketek patients.
* Four of these 12 resulted in death while a fifth individuals required a liver transplant in order to survive.
* Additionally, 23 cases of acute liver disease also were reported.
* In some patients, liver disease began developing after only a few doses of Ketek.
The increased risk of liver disease as related to consumption of Ketek caused the FDA to increase the warning label on the prescription drug, although patients of Ketek should cease taking the medication if they feel the signs or symptoms of liver disease.
Liver Disease Treatments
Treating the various forms of liver disease will vary based on a specific type and case, however, the following are often administered during treatment, according to the UIC Medical Center.
* bed rest
* avoiding alcohol
* consuming a well-balanced diet that has been pre-approved for
* avoiding dehydration by consuming plenty of fluids, especially water
* avoiding unnecessary medications
* taking an anti-nausea medication as well as other specifically prescribed medications depending on the type of liver condition
If individuals have an advanced case of liver disease it may be necessary to for that patient to undergo a surgical procedure or liver transplant. Unfortunately, there are treatments that exist in which a patient must have a pint of blood removed once or twice a week for the duration of several months.
Children who are affected by liver disease may even require a surgery known as the Kasai surgery in which a patient will have part of their bile ducts replaced by parts of the intestine.
Any form of liver disease will likely be a time-consuming life-altering condition and often will be very costly in receiving medical assistance. Discussing your case with a knowledgeable pharmaceutical lawyer can help determine if there is any potential for developing Ketek litigation.